Southern Slovakia has traditionally been identified with the region inhabited by Hungarians. However, for analytical purposes it is more appropriate to assume the administrative-statistical regions, and in Slovakia, the most suitable territorial entities are the districts. In Southern Slovakia there are 16 districts with a significant proportion of Hungarian population, and, for historical reasons, Bratislava and Košice can also be classified as belonging to the examined region. Looking at the aggregated data of this area, it can be concluded that its development is lagging behind the national average. Regarding industrial production, the southern region, in view of its gravity, accounts for a smaller proportion of the national output. Similarly, lagging behind can also be observed in respect of the corporate average wage, as well as in view of productivity. The economic development of the southern region is uneven, the western–eastern opposition is significant, although it is continuously decreasing. The economically most backward region in the long term is Gemer.