Remembering and Reminding. Memorial Signs of the Komárno Jewry
This study lists the memorial signs and memorials related to the Jewish community of Komárom (Komárno, Slovakia) numbering more than two thousand
before Holocaust. The place of remembrance was for a long time the cemetery where the sign of remembrance was the shrine, set up as a tribute to the memory of the deceased. One of the very first memorial signs installed outside the cemetery commemorates Kálmán Fried, former chairman of the town´s Israelite Charity Society. The memorial is located in the so called “Small Church” belonging to the Jewish Azylum. The second one, set up in one of the halls of the Asylum, pays tribute to the foundation of Ármin Schnitzer, the late chief rabbi of Komárom. The first memorial sign dedicated to commemorate several deceased persons at the same time, was established after World War I and it paid tribute to Jewish soldiers who died in the war. Most of the Jews of Komárom were killed in the Holocaust, so those who remained commemorated the victims by memorial signs. After the transition in 1989, the community having significantly decreased in number, inaugurated the memorials one after another—on one hand with the aim to commemorate those who were killed, and, on the other hand, designated the places which used to be parts of everyday life of Komárom´s Jewry. In the remaining small synagogue the number of memorial signs has grown too: former rabbis and other important persons have been given memorials there. This study not only sums up the memorial signs but also specifies the background of their setting up and their aftermath, and covers rituals connected with the objects serving as memorials.
The Regulation of Personal Names Use of the National Minorities in Czechoslovakia and Slovakia from 1918 until Present, with Special Regard to the Hungarian Minority
This study reviews the rights of national minorities in Czechoslovakia and Slovakia regarding the use of personal names from 1918 to the present. Tracing along the background factors of historical turning points and political eras of the examined period, the paper is also seeking to give a true and fair view on the relation of the powers that be to the national minorities, and their language policy relating thereto.
Together or Apart? Analysis of Discourses on Inter-municipal Cooperation on an Example of a Micro-region in Szeklerland
The topic of my paper is the analysis of rural elites´ narratives about inter-municipal cooperation in the Felcsík micro-region of Szeklerland. The importance of this topic is closely linked to the new rural paradigm and is one of the central elements of EU programs and strategies in recent years. In the study I present four ideal types identified in the discourses related to inter-municipal cooperation: (1) the ideal type that manages the interests of the municipality as a priority, (2) the abstain, (3) the interest oriented and the (4) project-oriented ideal type. My research is based on interviews made with 15 persons belonging to rural elites and coming from the public administration sector. The results of my research shows that the identified ideal types define the external and internal relations of the region, the cooperation practice of municipalities and, in this sense, the direction and the results of the developments. At the same time, from the point of view of the development policy, attention is drawn to factors stimulating and limiting the development processes of the region.
The Indigenous Status in Ukraine
Though the Ukrainian state has not been practising sovereign rights since 2014, the repeated and emphatic assertions of the rights of Crimean Tatars to self-determination have always been present. The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted a Resolution “On Statement of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine guarantees of the rights of the Crimean Tatar people as a part of the State of Ukraine” (2014). According to the resolution, the right of the Tatar people to self-determination shall be granted and protected within the sovereign and independent Ukrainian state, as Ukraine recognizes the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Resolution proposes that: „The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine instructs the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine to urgently submit draft laws of Ukraine and regulatory legal acts of Ukraine determining and confirming the status of the Crimean Tatar people as indigenous people of Ukraine.” However, no such document–not even a draft–was submitted before the end of 2017. After the Russian annexation of the Crimea, the national assertion of Crimean Tatars has become more and more virtual in Ukraine.
Military Cemeteries on the Outer Operational Areas of Eastern Hungary in 1914–1915
The human loss of the multinational Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in World War I is estimated for millions. But only one third of the dead, wounded and the prisoners of war can be directly linked to the fronts. Many died behind the frontlines or suffered and died in hospitals established in the hinterland. As a result of the Russian invasion, several counties of Eastern Hungary became operational areas between 1914 and 1915, and immediately after the fights ended, the identification of the dead and the burials began. Meanwhile the wounded continued to arrive from Galicia and Bukovina, who were in the first round placed in the towns of Mukachevo and Uzhhorod. Several thousand soldiers found their final resting place on the passes of the Carpathian Mountains and in military cemeteries created by the city hospitals. This study focuses on the establishment and the number of these cemeteries, as well as on the analysis of measures taken in connection with them.