Our National Minority and Science
László Öllös 342.72/.73 Our National Minority and Science 172.15 323.1 Keywords: freedom, rights, national identity, public opinion, scientism.
National identity had also meant the socialization of scientific and artistic elements of human identity, and, with it, the emergence of modern political community. The former feudal loyalty and faith ties have been modified by such knowledge and skills that provide the opportunity even for people previously considered to be simple, to rethink their society and state as a whole. Still, even with this limitation, national freedom becomes cultural freedom thank to the possibility of cultural advancement. But, cultural freedom has a specific weakness. Particularly, cultural freedom can be jeopardized even if the first generation human rights, in their classical sense, are guaranteed by the state, and it can as well be ensured even if human rights are not guaranteed for anybody at all. It means that even dictatorships can declare that they protect the national rights of their citizens against the oppressive intentions of other nations, as they provide for their education in the mother tongue, make possible that many elements of their popular culture become part of high culture supported by the state, and, instead of previous despise, they appreciate, what more, occasionally even promote the preservation of their customs and traditions, and make some of their symbols common with those of the state. On the contrary, constitutional democracies can also oppress those whom they do not perceive as carriers of national culture considered as primary by the state. Although the state formally respects their human rights, but it interprets them in such a way that their culture, language and other important characteristic features can never become equal to those of the majority. So, within minority culture constrained in this unequal position, high culture and scientism should be made subject of public discourse, i.e. become a public domain while it is not an objective of the nation state´s main forces. The given national minority has to address all the three challenges. One of them is the question how to examine the past, present and future of its own community. The second, how to present the results to its own people? And the third, how to get the message to the national majority´s public opinion. The founders of the Forum Minority Research Institute in 1986 faced all these questions.
The Bratislava Új Szó and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The Anti-revolutionary Propaganda in the Hungarian-language Daily of the Communist Party of Slovakia
Árpád Popély: The Bratislava Új Szó and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The Anti-revolutionary Propaganda in the Hungarian-language Daily of the Communist Party of Slovakia
The study analyses the involvement of the Bratislava Hungarian daily Új Szó during the Hungarian revolution of 1956. We attempt to review how the paper reacted on the events taking place in Hungary, and in what way was the propaganda of the power against the revolution presented on its pages. Új Szó—similarly to the Czech and Slovak papers—has condemned the „counter-revolution” in Hungary, but original articles written by the editorial board members were allowed to appear in the newspaper very rarely. Its items were taken over one-on-one from the press agency or from the Czech-language central party daily Rudé právo. But the involvement of Új Szó in 1956 had not exhausted in the propaganda targeted to the Hungarian minority of Slovakia, as the paper, through its special issues to be distributed in Hungary, had also been engaged in the propaganda towards
Changes in the Municipal Structure of National Minorities in Slovakia, according to the 1970 and 1980 Censuses
This study examines the 1970 and 1980 census data of municipalities of Slovakia inhabited by national minorities. The data rows of the two censuses related to national minorities could not be examined earlier as they only became available in the years following the turn of the millennium. The data series, besides those concerning the seven national minorities of Slovakia (Czechs, Slovaks, Ukrainian-Ruthenians, Russians, Polish, Hungarians, Germans), also contain data on other national minorities and those with unknown national identity. In this study we analyse data broken down by administrative units (counties, districts), municipality sizes, proportion of national minorities, and the number of members belonging to the individual minority communities. We examine the changes in the consolidated municipal data rows of majority and minority, as well as the changes in the data of the individual national minorities separately. Based on the analysed data, we can see the modifications of the ethnic spatial structure in the reviewed period in Slovakia. For better understanding, the changes taking place over the decades are further detailed by graphs and charts.
To Be a Single Mom—Results of a Sociological Field Research Made in the Past
In Slovakia in 1980, 5,6% of all live-born infants were born out of wedlock, and their proportion today is 37,8%, but we have no precise information on how many of them were born to single mothers, or how many to those unmarried but cohabiting with a partner. This study presents the results of a qualitative research made 30 years ago in five districts of Southern Slovakia. In the research we used three methods: document analysis, semi-structured interviews with 49 single mothers and further respondents, and field research. We were examining the issue of who became a single mother at that time and why. What kind of partnership preceded the birth of their baby? What was the public attitude towards them? The results of the research performed back in 1980 forecasted the present-day tendencies of the transformation of partnerships.
Upper Hungary, Southern Slovakia – Variants of Regionality
This study examines the characteristics of the area referred to equally in the Hungarian and Slovak discourse during the Dualism as “Felvidék” (Upper Hungary), and from the end of the 18th century, in the Slovak public perception as Slovakia, in Hungarian as the “Tót” nation. Although the area is not easy to mark out as a region according to a coherent system of criteria, there are some continuously prevailing geographical, cultural, economic, linguistic and ethnic characteristics that have substantiated a kind of a highland identity. In the 19th century, the region became the scene of the beginning of a parallel nation-building process of Hungarians and Slovaks, however, the regional self-image of the two nations aimed often at each other´s displacement, had become a source of conflicts. At the beginning of the 20th century, „Upper Hungary” (Felvidék) had gradually become a proper name confronting with „Slovensko” (Slovakia) used in an ethnic sense, therefore during the dualist period, the national space interpretations became focal points of the debates of Hungarians and Slovaks on the nation-building process, and on the assimilation and modernization processes. This study is attempting to resolve the dilemmas around interpretations of space, and, besides presenting the variants of notions connected with space, it also explores the question of regionality.
Anikó Hajdú 323.174(437.6)
Upper Hungary, Southern Slovakia – Variants of Regionality 316.347(437.6)
Keywords: Upper Hungary, Southern Slovakia, Slovensko, regional self-image, interpretation of space
Gömörfalva, Szeretetfalva, Vasutasfalva, Amerikafalva and Other Villages. Additions to the National Action Announced for Rebuilding Carpathian Villages Destroyed in 1914 in the Fights Following the Russian Invasion
The Russian army invaded Hungary in the autumn of 1914 on its northeastern border, and it occupied relatively substantial areas in a short period of time. Before April 1915, the Hungarians managed to drive them out completely, but the operational areas suffered major damage, especially 100 villages in the then Sáros, Zemplén and Ung counties, and to some extent, the fighting affected also the counties of Máramaros and Bereg. The greatest damage was suffered by the Sáros (Šariš) County, where 15 villages were destroyed completely. The costs of reconstruction were officially estimated at corona 7-8 million. It would have been impossible to generate this huge amount of money without the involvement of the population. The whole society of Hungary had joint forces in order to collect donations, and managed to raise the amount needed. This study introduces the reconstruction movement from its beginning to the delivery of houses, based on information gained mainly from calls, news, reports, etc. published in the contemporary regional press of Hungary´s counties today belonging to Slovakia.
Ilona Juhász L. 94(437.6)”1914/1915”
Gömörfalva, Szeretetfalva, Vasutasfalva, Amerikafalva and Other Villages. 94(439)”1914/1915”
Additions to the National Action Announced for Rebuilding Carpathian
Villages Destroyed in 1914 in the Fights Following the Russian Invasion
Keywords: World War I, Russian attack, fundraising, reconstruction
Theodor Ortvay. The Representative of the Scientists´ Republic
István Gaucsík 930.1-051
Theodor Ortvay. The Representative of the Scientists´ Republic 94(437.6)
Keywords: Tivadar (Theodor) Ortvay, Ortvay, biography, Hungarian historical science, history of Pozsony (Bratislava)
Theodore Ortvay (1843-1916) was one the best-known personalities of the 19th-century Hungarian positivist historiography. Nonetheless, his scientific biography featuring new aspects is still missing. This study is partly an attempt to compensate for this. Although the Slovak historical science considers him as a historian specialized on the medieval history of Bratislava, Ortvay´s academic activities were of a much wider range. His works of an enduring value encompassed the uneasy areas of social, economic and cultural history. Despite the fact that he spent three decades in Bratislava, his academic research remained mainstream. The author of this study deals with Ortvay´s career and achievements, he highlights the historian´s engagements in Bratislava from the perspective of fundamental research. He examines Ortvays´s works in the context of the 19th century social sciences in Hungary, in the contemporary discourse. He devotes special attention to the analysis of the historian´s scientific and public social networks (Szentkláray, Flóris Rómer, Arnold Ipolyi). A further, not-so-hidden objective of the study is to pave the way for Ortvay´s cult in Bratislava—in a positive sense, of course.
Spa Life in Gömör in the 19th Century, No. 11., Csízfürdő – a world spa?!
The deservedly best known and, at the same time, the youngest spa of the Gömör (Gemer) region was situated in the valley of the Rima river, on a hilly countryside protected from winds southeast of Rimaszombat (Rimavská Sobota), in the district of Rimaszécs (Rimavská Seč).
Although the mineral water of the spa had been widely known already from the 1860s, the bathing resort was built relatively late, at the turn of the century. The secret of its lightning fast bloom laid in its unique iodine-bromine mineral water rich in salt, and above all, in its capable, ambitious and modern-minded management. A contemporary source said in the peace years before the First World War that „in a few years, Csíz (today Číž) would be a far-famed spa of the Continent”. Well, even if the prophecy does not fully reflect reality, it has essentially been confirmed that the spa in Číž, as the only (!) spa in Gemer open for the public, has still been one of the most popular health resorts in the country.
Éva Kerényi 615.838(437.6)(091)
Spa Life in Gömör in the 19th Century, No. 11. 711.455:615.838(437.6)(091)
Csízfürdő – a world spa?!
Keywords: Gömör (Gemer), Csíz (Číž), spas, climatic resorts, balneology, medicinal mineral water