A Livelihood Compulsion, Form of Adaptation or a Calculated Enterprise? On Smuggling in Gömör and Nógrád
After the demarcation of the Trianon borders, smuggling became widespread in the 1920s and 1930s and it was noticeable until the late 1950s. Many of those living near the borders took part in this illegal activity, most actively along the Ipoly (Ipeľ) river, in the Bodrogköz (Pobodrožie) region, or in Gömör (Gemer) and Nógrád (Novohrad), for example. The study focuses on the latter two areas. Historical and ethnographic writings on the subject have been written in the past, which summarize its essential parts well. Knowing these, we also undertake to reveal further details and background information about the smuggling, which we underpin with a review of the contemporary press material, archival research and on-site collections.
The Situation of Public Workers and the Role of Public Employment in Ormansag Region
This study presents the results of participatory observation research in one of the most disadvantaged regions of Hungary, Ormansag in South Baranya, in the district of Sellye, related to public employment. The examined field has a high proportion of the low-skilled population with an unfavourable socio-cultural situation, a high unemployment rate, a significant number of people employed in—to put it in common parlance—public works, and this is well reflected in the structure of local society. Public employment means a very low income, a wage level below the minimum wage, the primary labour market is characterized by a lack of jobs, and due to the multiple marginalized situation, many are stuck in the public employment system for decades, although public employment was originally intended to serve as a transit employment only. In addition to exploring the situation, the study discusses the practical implementation of public employment programs, the perception of public workers, the employer environment and many other aspects that are related to public works based on the experience in the Sellye district.
Adaptation Strategies and Assimilation Careers of Intellectuals. Patterns of Ethnic History of Késmárk in the Period of Dualism
This study examines the ethnic changes of Késmárk (Kežmarok, Käsmark) during the Period of Dualism. In the course of my research, I tried to map the operation and contemporary situation of the town in a complex way. The extremely voluminous source material did not allow me to present Késmárk from all aspects, therefore the present study details only about the nationalization of the space under Dualism, the local historical society, local schools, and the state of community norms. The study also includes a career of an intellectual, his professional adaptation—assimilation. The limited amount of personal resources is intended to present the adaptation of perhaps a typical Zipser German intellectual to the prevailing circumstances and conditions at all times.