István Gaucsík: The Cooperative System in the Upper Hungarian (Slovak) Region (1898–1918)
Among the key links of the 19th century Hungarian cooperative system belonged the cooperatives in the Upper Hungarian Slovak region, many of which either operated in ethnic blocks or in Slovak–Hungarian–German contact zones. The regional and urban associations undertaking self-help and self-promoter profile played an important role, and from 1989 especially those cooperative structures which were set up on a top-down basis, with the aim of modernisation (Hungarian National Credit Cooperative, Hangya—Consumer and Marketing Cooperative of the Hungarian Landowners´ Association). These credit unions and consumer cooperatives were of great importance for the majority´s and the minorities´ political elites who were thus developing national societies which constituted communication channels towards farmers, among them especially the landowners. Through this channel they could, on the one hand, carry out such tasks as society organization and social politics, and, on the other hand, they could mobilize and politically activate the membership for national issues. For their existential weight and prestige in the regions they operated in, they had a middle-class creating function. This study is devoted to the integration and market expansion strategies of and the networks set up by the Hungarian National Credit Cooperative and the Hangya Cooperative. It also pays attention to the Slovak national cooperative policy objectives intensifying from the end of the 19th century, which confronted the Hungarian cooperative plans on the eve of World War I.
László Tóth: The Enescapable Path. The Hungarian Theatre of Bratislava in the New Czechoslovakia (1918–1924)
Throughout the city´s history, the population of Bratislava had fundamentally restructured three times. Until the second half of the 19th century, for the geographical proximity of Vienna, the German element was determinant in the life of the city. Then, in the period from the 1860s up to 1918 it was the Hungarian language and culture that was forging ahead. After the change of state power in the years 1918–1919, the Slovak character of the city gradually strengthened. This process intensified again in the period of 1945–1948 by forced Slovakisation, rights deprivation, deportation and forced relocation of the non-Slovak (Hungarian and German) population, which was followed in the 1950s and 1960s by intentional mass settling of Slovaks in Bratislava. This obviously led to a restructuring of the city´s ethnic character. By now, Bratislava as the capital of Slovakia and later of the independent Slovak Republic, has become an almost entirely Slovak city.
Consequently, even the first hundred years of the professional Hungarian-language theatre between 1820 and 1920 had also been a now and again interrupted period of struggle for existence, for gaining ground, for finding its place, for winning its civil rights. And if we take the period of the fifty years between 1880 and 1930, when the Hungarian-language theatre of Bratislava actually began to advance, we can see that within the first four decades it suddenly—from one day to another—lost ground, its raison d´être, then, by the end of the 1930s it completely ceased to exist. That is, in Bratislava two major switches of languages and cultures took place within fifty years—which is rare, even in a wider context. First it was the Hungarian language that gradually gained more and more of a hold from the absolute majority of the German language and culture, then, by suppression of Hungarian, the Slovak—and in some extent the Czech—character of the city had strengthened, thus providing a successful example of “nationalization of the place and the past”. This study observes the initial stages of the second change of Bratislava´s language and culture, respectively, the processes preceding the change. Taking divergent approaches, it examines the many aspects of the changes affecting the city´s Hungarian-language theatre in the light of the contemporary press, and it also pays special attention to Hungarian and Slovak theatre historiography.
Ilona Juhász L.: „We, Hungarian Workers Have Always Trusted in Him.” Two Symbolic Funerals at the Time of the Cult of Personality
Joseph V. Stalin, Soviet Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union died on 5 March 1953. Nine days later he was followed by Klement Gottwald, the first Czechoslovak worker-president, head of the Czechoslovak Communist Party. On the days when the funerals of the two leading politicians were taking place, symbolic funerals were held on the command of the Communist Party in the municipalities of Czechoslovakia as well. This study—based mainly on a recent collection carried out in the municipalities Dolné Saliby, Horné Saliby and Rudná, and on the contemporary press coverage—recalls how the national mourning manifested itself in the municipalities and what externals characterized the two symbolic funerals. It touches upon, inter alia, the “spontaneously” written letters published in the contemporary press, examines the memories of the informants on the contemporary events and shows what information was recorded in the chronicles of the three examined villages on those days.