An­na Kolláth Contact Phenomenon or Language Mistake? Mu­ra Reg­ion Language Usage Phenomena and Their Judgement

Today we can face numerous difficulties, misunderstanding, disagreement in connection with the above-mentioned topic, therefore it is not accidental that I put in words about the everyday problems of minority language usage with mo­re carefulness and discretion. Especially when one emphasised the so-called “classical or traditional or academic language cultivation”, i.e. the principle of “there is only one Hungarian language”, the demanding Hungarian (or foreign) language stan­dard, get socialised, lived, and worked in a one-language environment, and relatively later and as one belonging to the mother land got in touch with the language sphere, mo­re precisely with the minority bilinguality, of which functioning can not be measured with mother land measures: monolingual aspects and methods that is evidenced by the disagreement of linguists and language cultivators of the 90’s and my unsuccessful language cultivating activities in the Mu­ra reg­ion.
The risk is too big, mainly in the Mu­ra reg­ion, since the life situation of the Hungarian language and the communities living there speaking Hungarian as their mother language is entirely different from the regions living behind the four borders (too small ethnic group, about 6000 members; minority policy based on positive discrimination from the side of the majority country seems to be perfect, the Hungarian language is the regional official language; much mo­re better living conditions than in Hun­ga­ry) – although the result is the same considering the state of the Hungarian language and the chances for its maintaining: with exemplary knowledge of legal situation and the decrease of Hungarians as well as Hungarian language speakers in the Mu­ra reg­ion can be seen as inconceivable. The official, de jure bilinguality ensures the language usage rights in every level, but it does not result factual – neither social, nor individual – bilinguality, it has no language remaining power, but it is rather a catalisator in the unstopping process of language exchange.
In the process of remaining a language the new economic and political situation, the EU have a ma­jor role, because Hun­ga­ry and Slovakia entered the union at the same time. The market offered by political powers is the European integration that comprises the hope for remaining with the slogan “the today’s Europe is the Europe of minorities and regions, the essence of today’s union is multicolourness”. Our opinion formed on our language, our constructive mother language consciousness in this historical time will be determiners of the further fate of the Hungarian language. (If there is no language, neither language cultivation, nor language planning is needed!)
The non-universal Hungarian stan­dard elements present in cross border contact changes, that is the judgement, standardisation, and then codification of direct and indirect contact phenomena created by the influence of the contact language is a relatively complicated process dependent on mo­re factors. There has not been still enough written about it, this is why mo­re and mo­re should be talked about it.
It is very important that the several language-language usage phenomena are placed to the correct place in the system of the given language varieties, and to the consciousness of the language users. The minority communities, and so the Mu­ra region’s Hungarians can and want to live in its mother language, if it receives a confirmation from a linguist or other people that its language variety is of that value, not worse, than that of a native speaker, but due to its situation, it is different. On the other hand they are confirmed that there are ma­jor differences between certain communication situations in other places, regardless of language, country, that from the point of view of the language can be and should be divided from each other. This would from the side of the speaker in connection with the mother language within bilinguality mean bi- or multi-linguality of mother language.
The decisions, not exaggerated change of views needed for the maintenance, development of language varieties beyond the border, possible willingness for compromises determine the future of the Hungarian linguistics in a great extent. They can begin or continue those concrete processes – mainly in the field of lexicology and lexicography –which we have already mentioned. I think that the 1st Meeting of Applied Linguistics plays a very important role in this period of the language.