The study is the first chapter of János Arany’s monography written in the Slovak literature in 1924, in which he analyses the basic concepts of comparative literature history (literature comparatism), firstly the issues of literature tradition and the influence of literature. The author provides an analysis through several works of authors of the Slovak and Hungarian literature from the 19th century, mainly by showing the influence of Sándor Petőfi and János Arany on the public opinion of the Slovak literature. In the study the sensitive issues of Slovak-Hungarian literature relationships are also present, for example Sándor Petőfi’s long non-acceptance by the Slovaks.