In this paper, I deal with how the state policy on the Roma developed after the Second World War, between 1945 and 1969 in the former Czechoslovakia and in what is now Slovakia. In this connection, I try to point out the discriminatory measures and negative political mechanisms against the Roma that characterized the policies of the state authorities under the totalitarian regime, during the period indicated. By way of analysis and comparison of government measures and statistics taken during the investigation period, misperceptions on domestic Roma can easily be rebutted. Recalling the facts from the immediate postwar years, the attitudes and views of the political actors, and the measures taken against the Roma, we can avoid all simplistic conclusions aiming at exempting the Czech and Slovak governmental authorities from liability. In this period, government policy, and the attitudes of the elites played an extremely important role especially in the case of the Roma, and it can be assumed that this influenced their social situation and development