Middle-Europe after the First World War, Habsburg-restoration, the king issue, Little Antant, diplomaticrelations, foreign representation, internál crisi

in Hungary (26th March 1921 – 5th April) (2. part)

The study’s topic is the most significant event of Hungary’s history between thetwo World Wars that had important effect not only on Czechoslovak-Hungarianrelations of the period, but it had became alsó one of the most important inter-national-political events of the first part of 1921. The mentioned event was thefirst restoration effort of the last Austrian emperor and the Hungárián kingCharles Habsburg the IV. The goal of the study is to reconstruct the event’s cir-cumstances mainly from the view of Czechoslovak-Hungarian relations, and/orto discuss the events about the arrival of the ex-king to Hungary in time order,mainly from the aspect of this adventurous step of Charles Habsburg and theactivities and roles of the Czechoslovak diplomacy.

Post-war coexistence of Czechoslovakia and Hungary after the disintegrati-on of the Austria-Hungary Monarchy, as it is well-known, was not characterisedby mutual friendliness. After the creation of the independent Czechoslovakiaand Hungary, the issue of determining borders, that is the territory issue beca-me obviously the most important problem of the conflicts between the twoneighbouring countries. At the same time, as another serious problem, theform of government of Hungary appeared between the problems.

The rather weak Czechoslovak-Hungarian political relations established onthe turn of years 1920 and 1921, of which first positive results were the bila-teral Czechoslovak-Hungarian discussions on governmental levél in theSouthern Austria, Bruck an der Leith, were very soon interrupted by an eventthat effected not only the bilateral relations of both countries: restorationefforts of Charles Habsburg.

Charles’ unexpected arrival to Hungary on 31st March on Thursday and onlst April on Friday was the topic of the Czechoslovak parliament’s meeting.Benes answering to interpellating representatives in connection with Czechoslovak-Hungarian discussions, called the arisen situation, in connecti-on with Hungary’s credit and international position, a serious stroke.

Czechoslovakia’s determined anti-Habsburg standpoint did not ease evénafter the extraordinary meeting of the Hungárián National Council on lst April,during which the body unanimously positioned to anti-Habsburg standpoint.The Czechoslovak Foreign Minister tried to give an ultimátum together with theYugoslav and Román party to the Hungárián government, of which goal was todemonstrate mutual activity.

Meanwhile the diplomatic activities of the Czech Foreign Minister, that wasdirected on the handing over of the „kisantant” ultimátum, the case ofCharles’ departure from Hungary was solved. On 5th April the train departedHungary with the ex-king. Consequently the leader of the Czechoslovak dele-gation informed Benes that the „handing over of the ultimate became void”.