The Role of International non-state institutions and Jewish Organisations in the Creation of Minority Protectionafter the flrst world war League of Nations, minority protection system, Eastern-European Jews

The study explains the genesis of minority protection created within the newworld system created after the first world war. It alsó outlines the guaranteesof minority protection included in the clauses of peace agreements betweenthe certain countries, and the method of examining complaints because of vio-lating these clauses, as well. This was the role of the new institution, theLeague of Nations, to guarantee peace. The author emphases that until 1926from the presented complaints after the long and difficult bureaucratic proce-dure there was legal remedy only in three cases. The study’s centre is to dis-cuss that question that at the peace conference the minority issue was main-ly raised by the representatives of non-state organisations, where the repre-sentation of Jewish communities was strong. After a comprehensive survey onthe state of Eastern-European Jews, creation of anti-Semitism and develop-ment of Zionistic movement that fact is explained that the Jewish communiti-es of that area had the strongest influence on peace creators. Their require-ments were taken over by the representatives of American Jews. Their organi-sation by the League of Nations required administrational and cultural auto-nomy for the minority everywhere, where their number exceeded 1 percent.Their requirement was rejected by the committee of newly established coun-tries, and the representatives of Great Britain and Francé from the beginningurged individual rights. The study’s conclusion is that the great powers consi-dered the minority agreements as an essential compromise that leads to theassimilation of the minority without any force.