La­jos Izsák: The dep­ri­va­tion of rights of the Upper Hun­ga­ri­ans and their remo­val from their nati­ve land 1944–1949

Upper Hun­ga­ry was lived by Hun­ga­ri­ans from the 11th century. After the Sec­ond World War the Hun­ga­ri­ans had to leave that territory, and/or were remo­ved from that territory. Accor­ding to the cen­sus in 1773 during Maria Tere­sa’s reign the Hun­ga­ri­an ter­ri­to­ry’s boun­da­ry was con­si­de­red to be in the line of Nyitra-Léva-Losonc-Rimaszombat-Rozsnyó-Jászó. Accor­ding to the popu­la­ti­on cen­sus in 1910 al­most 900 thou­sand Hun­ga­ri­ans lived on the ter­ri­to­ry that recent­ly belongs to Slovakia. The deca­des that pas­sed by from that time result­ed vast ethnic and lan­gu­a­ge chan­ges as well. The for­cib­le cham­pagne on Hun­ga­ri­an tea­ching com­men­ced after the chan­ge in 1918/19, when the new Cze­chos­lo­vak state expel­led mo­re than 100 thou­sand Upper Hun­ga­ri­ans from its nati­ve land. The prog­ram for estab­lis­hing the Cze­chos­lo­vak nati­o­nal state was com­ple­ted by Edvard Beneš and the Cze­chos­lo­vak immig­ra­ti­on gover­nment in Lon­don at the end of 1942, and at the begin­ning of 1943 it was com­ple­ted by deman­ding the expel of the Hun­ga­ri­an nati­o­na­li­ty popu­la­ti­on that was accep­ted in the spring of 1944 by the Cze­chos­lo­vak com­mu­nis­tic emig­ra­ti­on toget­her with the Sovi­et government.

The study intro­du­ces and ana­ly­ses in detail the reso­lu­ti­ons aga­inst Hun­ga­ri­ans that were valid from 1944, the con­se­qu­en­ces of the Kas­sa gover­nmen­tal prog­ram, the exe­cu­ti­on of the Beneš Decrees, the work of the Cze­chos­lo­vak Com­mit­tee for Reset­tle­ment in Hun­ga­ry, the so-called re-slovakisation, and the deci­si­ons of the peace con­fe­ren­ce in Pa­ris. At the same time the Hun­ga­ri­an poli­ti­cal parties, the work of the Nati­o­nal As­sembly and car­di­nal Min­dszen­ty Jó­zsef and their steps taken for the Upper Hungarians. Finally, he sum­ma­ri­zes in num­bers to the end of De­cem­ber 1948, 73 273 Slo­vak peop­le left Hun­ga­ry voluntarily, and/or 89 600 Hun­ga­ri­ans were depor­ted from Czechoslovakia. Plus anot­her 6000 persons, who offi­ci­al­ly „voluntarily” left for Hun­ga­ry, and 20-30 thou­sand peop­le were expelled, and many thou­sands came for accom­plis­hing their stu­di­es in Hun­ga­ry and to set­tle he­re later. The Hun­ga­ri­ans left in Upper Hun­ga­ry 160 thou­sand acres of land and 15 700 houses. The Slo­vaks left he­re 38 000 acres and 4400 houses. The Upper Hun­ga­ri­ans did not rece­i­ve any compensation.