Krisz­ti­na Estélyi – Bé­la Keszegh– Pé­ter Kovács– Ilo­na Mikóczy: Labor-force migration along the Slovak–Hungarian border

The goal of the research is mainly the mapping the direction, rate, character, and line of labor-force migration at the Hungarian-Slovak border, with a special emphasis on their effect on the economy and social changes of the bordering regions. The not existence of language obstacles and the different economic indicators even increase the opportunities of labor-force migration, that has grown into significant measures.

The study first of all explains the difference between labor-force migration and labor-force commuting. In case of migration along the border the phenomena of commuting is the determining, although the number of commuters can be hardly followed according to the regulation of the European Union and actual laws. Since the arrangements in the Union it is possible to lend labor-force, it is even mo­re difficult to measure the number of employers.
The first part examines the legal background of labor-force migration. With the entry to the European Union a new conception came into existence in the la­bor market of the new member states that minimally limits employment. At the introduction of the legal background we paid special attention to the opportunities and regulation of labor-force lending.
The second part of the study examines labor-force migration in relation with economic indicators. With prognoses the study tries to outline the possible future tendencies. With introducing economic indicators that are connected with labor-force migration, there is an opportunity to define other recommendations that enable under conscious control of the government to bring ma­xi­mum pro­fit to both countries from labor-force migration, avoiding the expansion of gray, and/or black economy.
Another part of the study tries to introduce the practical side of the issue. It outlines how labor-force migration works nowadays, what circumstances caused the increase of the number of commuters. This chapter shows the focus of labor-force migration, where the number of commuters is the biggest, and he­re we can get a picture on the number of commuters in the last half-year. Together with showing the number of commuting the change of la­bor market is shown that had different effect on the society on the both sides of the border. The re-arrangement of the la­bor market helps to measure the social and economic opportunities and dangers, and at the same time helps to work out a profound conception of la­bor along the border.