Károly András: Hungarian Minority, Slovak Majority The Hungarians living in Czechoslovakia before and after 1956, and a short overview on Sub-Carpathia

The study introduces the state of Hungarian minority living in Slovakia before and after the Hungarian revolution in 1956, and/or the reception of the revolutionary events through the behaviour of the Cultural Association of Hungarian Workers Living in Czechoslovakia (abbrev. Csemadok) and the Új Szó. Analysing everything in broader connections, since the author shortly mentions anti-Hungarian (and anti-German) policy after the second world war, deprivation of citizenship rights of non-Slavic minorities. The Hungarian revolution in 1956 found the Hungarian minority living in Czechoslovakia in a situation of complete uncertainty of its rights. In the summer of 1956, as a reaction to the speach of Hruscsov and news on East European unrest, the atmosphere in Czechoslovakia eased a bit. In order to calm minorities a new act on constitution was passed. They eased the isolation of the Hungarian minority. Although the Hungarians living in Slovakia in spite of widening relationships, did not know exactly what was happening „abroad“, in Hngary; the news on the revolution in October surprised everybody. The Czechoslovak press – including the Hungarian language Új Szó – behaved for days in such way as if nothing speacial would happened on the other side of the south border. But even on the first day Czech troops arrived to South Slovakia. At many places high school students formed groups, without their parents knowing about it, in order to help Hungarian war of independence. Although, they did not get too far, they were collected and sent back. The authorities delivered call-up papers to the Hungarian men for compulsory military service, mainly to the younger generation, and were transferred to Czechoslovakia. The party center mobilised the Csemadok, the only Hungarian organisation, of which hands reached the most important Hungarian node points, in order to set the things right with the Hungarian minority. At the suppress of the revolution Slovakia served for the Soviet troops as marching territory. The Czechoslovak and the Slovak communistic party, as well as the official propaganda totally supported János Kádár. There is no documents that should record that what minority policy decisions were made by the Slovak party after 1956. After 1956 minority policy changed in such way that duality continued, but they tried to use it more methodically and cautiously.