Szemle Archive


Some aspects of the national identity of the Hungarian youth in Slovakia

The main reason of the decrease of the number of ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia is assimilation. According to demographic studies, assimilation can be detected mainly in the age group between 10–34 years. The starting point of this paper is that one of the micro-social key factors of assimilation is the state of national identity, and, if it is true indeed that it is more characteristic for people of young age that they have greater tendency to assimilate, then it must be manifested in their national identity as well. The author, on the basis of the results of a sociological research conducted in 2014 on a sample of 3000 respondents, analyses some aspects of the state of the national identity, namely the importance of values and the presence of key decisions with respect to the preservation of Hungarian identity. Comparing the answers of age groups 18–34, 35–55 year-old and 55-and-up, the author shows that the importance of these values decrease by the decreasing age and, at the same time, the probability of decisions promoting assimilation grows.

The economic and social situation of South Slovakia in the light of some indicators

The Hungarian-inhabited region stretches along the entire southern border of Slovakia, somewhere in a wide, elsewhere in a thin strip. The region is divided into various regions, sites and dialects, these often reach over the other side of the border. The southern districts differ from the average Slovak districts in many aspects. If we look at the unemployment rate, for instance, irrespective of the outstanding results of Bratislava and Košice, in the 16 southern districts it is always significantly higher than the national average. The southern parts suffer much more from unemployment – it is especially evident in Štúrovo and Šahy –, but the situation is even more unfavourable in the regions with Hungarian majority. Despite the fact that the 16 Hungarian-inhabited districts differ from each other in many ways, and one or two – those situated close to Bratislava and Košice – may be in a better position than the national average, but from the economic point of view they still form one compact region, which generally is in a worse situation than the national average. This though does not mean that the southern border region is the most remote part of the country, but, in comparison with the Slovak national average, lagging is clearly detectable over the last two decades.

Lagging behind, but yet unclouded. How is reality seen by the Hungarians in the Veľký Krtíš district – the balance of the political split of the Hungarians in Slovakia

My brief study summarizes the results of a survey conducted in a form of questionnaire among Hungarians living in the Veľký Krtíš district. On the basis of various indicators, I have shifted the region among the lagging regions of Slovakia. The questionnaire had been filled in randomly by potential Hungarian voters based in the above mentioned administrative unit. I examined three major topics: 1. Political event tracking and activity habits of potential Hungarian voters living in the Veľký Krtíš district (okres); 2. Mapping of main reasons of the economical lagging of the region based on the direct answers of the Hungarian respondents living in the district; 3. Opinion of the Hungarians living in the district on the present political situation, with special regard to the political split of the Hungarians in Slovakia.

Amazing Holy Trinity… Inscriptions on small sacral relics from the Little Hungarian Plain (Kisaföld) in the light of the Holy Trinity relics

Amazing Holy Trinity… Inscriptions on small sacral relics from the Little Hungarian Plain (Kisaföld) in the light of the Holy Trinity relics

The study analyses the inscriptions of a type group of small sacral relics showing Holy Trinity, typical for the region of the Little Hungarian Plane (Kisalföld), currently South-West Slovakia. The phenomenon has been examined from the formal point of view and content, with the result that the 74 inscriptions written in Hungarian, Slovak and Latin on the Holy Trinity sculptures in the region in both aspects harmonize with other texts of small sacral relics in the given environment.

Spa life in Gömör in the 19th century 6. Lévárt, the Hungarian Gastein

This privately held, undeservedly neglected spa has never really been in the spotlight of the spa propaganda: the national literature on balneology and the spa journals only offer brief description of Lévárt or it does not mention it at all. The turn of the century had not brought significant improvement either, as less and less patients and only short-time vacationers had been looking for a cure in the spa. It started to show promising development only after 1910, but the recovery did not last long. Lévárt had preserved its regional character in the years between the two world wars too. The temperature of the water, its favourable chemical composition and the healing climate indicate again that extraordinary potentials had been wasted. The spa ceased to operate in the 1970s due to nationalization, and today it is left to decay in a desolated state with its beautiful, Swiss-style carved buildings, similarly to the spa of Várgede.

The measurement of the transboundary impact in Slovakia and Hungary. The experiences of an empirical study.

Every year, the European Union spends millions of euros for promoting cross-border cooperation among its member states. The efficiency of these expenditures is measured by indicators. Typical examples for such indicators are: Has the number of enterprises increased in the region? Has employment increased along the border? Have there been created any new workplaces in the region? Has the project promoted diversity and equal opportunities? Are there at least two women in the
project management staff? We argue that the indicators required by the eu are suitable for the measurement of the efficiency of funds spent on cross-border cooperation. In most of the social and economic dimensions, they fail to assess direct impacts of cross-border cooperation projects. A new methodology is required for the determination of the direct social impact of the eu CbC programs. The paper suggests measuring the direct social impact of these programs by indicators based on mental mapping, assessment of language skills and a position generator measure of social capital. The pilot research has been carried out on four locations along the Hungarian–slovakian border: in Esztergom, Štúrovo, Mosonmagyaróvár and Šamorín. Representative samples of 125 persons per location have been drawn and interviewed using paper-based questionnaires in all selected locations. The pilot study has proved that the proposed methodology based on multiple measures is suitable for measuring the respondents’ connectedness to the neighbouring country. The results show that the respondents in Štúrovo and esztergom have a much stronger relationship with the neighbouring country than the other two samples, and they also highlight the importance of the
Hungarian community in slovakia in cross-border movement.